After analysing natural residues from historic pots, a group of scientists led by the College of Bristol has uncovered new proof of dairying by hunter-gatherers within the landlocked South African nation of Lesotho within the mid-late first millennium AD.
Though these farmers seem to have been in touch with native lowland hunter-gatherer teams, it was lengthy assumed that that they had little or no direct contact with hunter-gatherers already occupying the mountainous areas of Lesotho, as they didn’t settle the area till the 19th century as a result of unsuitability of the mountains for crop cultivation.
Over the previous a number of many years nonetheless, stays of home animal bones have been uncovered in a number of websites within the Maloti-Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in hunter-gatherer contexts courting to the first and 2nd millennia AD.
At one website specifically – Likoaeng – home animal bones had been present in affiliation with an Early Iron Age potsherd and a few fragments of iron. This discovery led to the suggestion that the hunter-gatherers occupying the location had been following a ‘hunters-with-sheep’ mode of subsistence that included the holding of small numbers of livestock into what was in any other case a foraging financial system and that they will need to have obtained these animals and objects by on-going contact with agricultural teams primarily based on the coast.
Up to now 5 years nonetheless, a number of research have sequenced DNA from supposed home animal bones from these highland websites, and as an alternative discovered them to belong to wild species. This led to the suggestion that the presence of home animals within the highlands, and subsequently the extent of contact, had been overestimated, but the zooarchaeologists concerned stand by their unique morphological evaluation of the bones.
Lead researcher, Helen Fewlass, now primarily based on the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig) however who carried out the work as a part of her grasp’s challenge within the College of Bristol’s Division of Anthropology and Archaeology, mentioned: “We used natural residue evaluation to research fat that turn out to be absorbed into the porous clay matrix of a pot throughout its use.
“We extracted and analysed lipid residues from pots from two hunter-gatherer websites with home livestock stays within the highlands of Lesotho, Likoaeng and Sehonghong, courting to the mid-late first millennium AD and in contrast them to lipids extracted from pots from a latest close by agricultural settlement, Mokatlapoli.
“This allowed us to discover the subsistence practices of the hunter-gatherers occupying these websites to see if there was any proof for his or her contact with farming teams.”
The group discovered that dairy residues had been current in roughly a 3rd of the hunter-gatherer pots. They straight radiocarbon dated a dairy residue from Likoaeng to AD 579-654 and one other from Sehonghong to AD 885-990. The outcomes verify the presence of home animals at these websites within the 1st millennium AD.
The group additionally noticed patterning within the secure carbon isotopic values of fatty acids within the residues, which suggest that completely different strategies of animal husbandry had been practised by the first millennium hunter-gatherer teams in comparison with the latest agricultural group occupying the identical area.
The secure carbon isotopic values of dairy residues from the agricultural website clearly mirror the introduction of crops resembling maize and sorghum into the area within the late nineteenth century and the foddering of home animals upon them.
Because the hunter-gatherer teams will need to have learnt animal husbandry methods, the outcomes help the notion that hunter-gatherer teams within the highlands of Lesotho had on-going contact with farming communities within the lowlands, relatively than simply acquiring the animals by raids or long-distance change networks. Primarily based on the direct date of the dairy residue from Likoaeng, contact will need to have been established inside a number of centuries of the arrival of agricultural teams within the coastal areas of South Africa.
The outcomes even have implications for the on-going debate concerning the molecular vs morphological evaluation of the faunal stays. The outcomes of the natural residue evaluation help the osteoarchaeological proof for the presence of home animals at Likoaeng and Sehonghong. Nonetheless, as massive quantities of milk may be generated from one home animal, the prevalence of dairy residues doesn’t inform us what number of home animals had been current.
Direct radiocarbon courting of home faunal stays in these contexts has been hampered by poor collagen preservation. The brand new methodology (printed earlier this month in Nature) for direct courting of fat extracted from potsherds represents a brand new avenue for putting the arrival and presence of home animals within the space in a safe chronological context.
Helen Fewlass added: “The presence of dairy fat in pots from Likoaeng and Sehonghong in highland Lesotho exhibits that hunter-gatherers within the mountains had adopted not less than sporadic use of livestock from agricultural teams in South Africa not lengthy after their arrival within the 1st millennium AD.”
Co-author, Dr Emmanuelle Casanova, from the College of Bristol’s Natural Geochemistry Unit – a part of the Faculty of Chemistry, added: “Along with the identification of dairying practices we had been ready apply a brand-new courting methodology for pottery vessels to confirm the antiquity of the dairy residues which completely suits with the age of the hunter-gatherer teams.”
This research represents the primary evaluation and direct radiocarbon courting of natural residues from pottery from south-eastern Africa. The excessive stage of preservation discovered implies that the strategy has nice potential for additional functions within the area. This mountainous space of Lesotho has different hunter-gatherer websites containing pottery in contexts courting to the first and 2nd millennium AD so there’s potential to increase such a evaluation to different websites within the area to grasp whether or not this practise was comparatively remoted or ubiquitous.