Greater than 10 thousand years in the past, on the peninsula of Yucatan, very totally different from the one we now know: with a chilly climates and in depth prairies much like these of the British islands or the Cantabrian coast of Spain, the primary people of America already interacted with the wild atmosphere, leaving traces that at this time are being found and studied from archaeology and science.
|Research present that bonfires within the Aktun Ha cenote had been created by man greater than 10,000 years in the past.
Octavio del Río in entrance of the principle bonfire [Credit: Eugenio Acevez]
That is the case of a brand new investigation, endorsed by the Nationwide Institute of Anthropology and Historical past (INAH), whose outcomes are made public as a part of the marketing campaign “Contigo en la Distancia” – “With You by Lengthy Distance” of the Ministry of Tradition, and revealed in the newest situation of the journal Geoarchaeology, which verifies -for the primary time in an underwater context- that hunter-gatherers lit and used hearth within the area at this time often called the “Cámara de los Ancestros”– “Chamber of Ancestors”, formation positioned within the cave system of the cenote Aktun Ha, in Quintana Roo.
That is corroborated by 14 prehistoric bonfires, whose samples – obtained between 2017 and 2018 – had been subjected to laboratory research: managed heating, petrography, Taphonomy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Carbon Relationship 14, and demonstrated two key factors:
The primary, explains archaeologist Luis Alberto Martos López, of the Division of Archaeological Research (DEA) of the INAH, referring to an antiquity that ranges between 10,750 and 10,250 years earlier than the current. That is the oldest time interval reported by way of charcoal with human affiliation in a cenote of the peninsula, coinciding with the tip of the final glaciation, occurring throughout the Pleistocene to Holocene interval.
|Octavio del Rio recording one of many bonfires within the Chamber of the Ancients
[Credit: Krzysztof Starnawski]
The second and much more essential is the affirmation that these fires, a few of which reached temperatures of 600 ºC, had an anthropogenic origin in situ, which means, that the stays of coal arriving by way of the pure motion of water after the rise of the ocean degree on Earth is discarded.
After confirming that these outcomes had been essential to grasp the populating of the American continent and the Yucatan peninsula, Martos defined that the challenge was approved by the Council of Archaeology of the INAH, and carried out beneath the coordination of researchers Octavio del Río Lara and Rafael López Martínez, in addition to with the participation of Adriana Velázquez Morlet, who in 2018 was the Director of the INAH Quintana Roo Heart.
The Chamber of Ancestors has been investigated 3 times. The primary in 1990, when two speleodivers by the title of Coke and Younger made a tour of it, the second by the INAH in 1998 and once more in 2002.
|Cross part of the path to the Chamber of Ancestors and 3D mannequin photographs
[Credit: Octavio del Río]
The cenote Aktun Ha thus turned the primary flooded cave, nationally, that confirmed short-term prehistoric human occupation, presumably as a room, shelter perhaps for ritualistic functions. Different notable discoveries verified by the INAH in related contexts are these of Naharon, Las Palmas and Hoyo Negro, with historical human stays, additionally positioned within the labyrinthine subsoil that surrounds Tulum.
The Chamber of Ancestors is positioned 150 meters from the doorway of the cenote and 26 meters deep. It’s a area of about 20 sq. meters by 5 or 6 meters excessive. Its morphology -recorded in plans and in a 3D reconstruction- was propitious for the air flow of smoke from the burning of the fires, as the recent air rose and left the cave simply.
Aktun Ha is colloquially identified by the title ‘Automobile Wash’ in English. It’s because within the years previous to its revaluation as a heritage web site it was widespread for taxi drivers from the Tulum space to make the most of its proximity to the highway and wash their automobiles there.
|Doable deposit of stone instruments [Credit: Octavio del Río]|
Now, the cenote, of which half is open to tourism, is properly preserved by the native authorities, who concurrently ban all entry to the areas that result in the Chamber of Ancestors.
In prehistoric instances it was totally different. Luis Alberto Martos describes that the Chamber of Ancestors again then was a dry cavern solely 80 centimeters excessive that at this time, when fully flooded, is harmful to traverse even for skilled underwater archaeologists.
“This small tunnel, hidden behind a mound of rocks richly bedecked with stalactites, stalagmites and columns that would function an entry signal,” was crawl area solely, which little question supplied safety to its entry, avoiding the infiltration of the good predators of that period as had been the saber-toothed tigers and bears, or different bands of hunter-gatherers.
Along with its being a refuge, the cave additionally supplied contemporary water, since on the backside of the Chamber of Ancestors there was a pure properly, whose existence was verified by analyzing zeolite mineral stays.